The Indian economy has transformed itself over the last sixty years from a stagnant economy into one with an accelerating rate of growth. The average annual rate of growth of GDP has steadily increased post-1980 to reach a level of 8 per cent during the period 2007-12. However, a majority of the population does not have access to the fruits of development and is not part of the mainstream of national life even now. Poverty and deprivation are still widespread. Economic and social inequalities between income classes, social groups and regions have increased. Ensuring the quality of education remains a challenge with adverse consequences in terms of access to employment and incomes, and the growth of productivity. Infant Mortality Rates (IMRs) and Maternal Mortality Rates (MMRs) continue to remain high in many states. About half the children aged less than 5 years are malnourished. Every third woman in the country is undernourished, with 35.6 per cent of them having a low Body Mass Index (BMI, and every second woman or 55.6 per cent of them being anaemic.